One of Jest's philosophies is to provide an integrated “zero-configuration” experience. We want to make it as frictionless as possible to write good tests that are useful. We observed that when engineers are provided with ready-to-use tools, they end up writing more tests, which in turn results in stable and healthy code bases.
One of the big open questions was how to write React tests efficiently. There are plenty of tools such as ReactTestUtils and enzyme. Both of these tools are great and are actively being used. However engineers frequently told us that they spend more time writing a test than the component itself. As a result many people stopped writing tests altogether which eventually led to instabilities. Engineers told us all they wanted was to make sure their components don't change unexpectedly.